Tom Kelliher, CS 325
Apr. 6, 2011
Forwarding vs. routing:
The forwarding table determines this routing.
The output from the routing algorithms are used to configure the forwarding tables. As such, they determine the host-to-host routes.
Routers also participate in connection setup for network-layer protocols based on the virtual circuit model, such as ATM.
Possible network service characteristics, WRT individual packets:
Possible network service characteristics, WRT packet flows:
The Internet gives ``best effort'' service. ``Best effort'' is a euphemism for ``No guarantees.'' ATM provides a couple different service levels:
|Network Architecture||Service Model||Bandwidth Guarantee||No-Loss Guarantee||Ordering||Timing||Congestion Indication|
|Internet||Best effort||None||None||Any order possible||Not maintained||None|
|ATM||CBR||Guaranteed constant rate||Yes||In order||Maintained||Congestion will not occur|
|ATM||ABR||Guaranteed minimum||None||In order||Not maintained||Congestion indication provided|
Consider the following example of a small virtual circuit network:
and R1's routing table:
|Incoming Interface||Incoming VC #||Outgoing Interface||Outgoing VC #|
Three phases in the life of a virtual circuit:
No setup or teardown. Source just ``dumps'' packets into the network:
Routers must forward packets on incoming links to correct outgoing links.
Example: IP. 32 bit address. A complete forwarding table would have entries. Infeasible.
Instead, use hierarchical addressing and ``blocks'' of addresses:
|Destination Address Range||Link Interface|
|11001000 00010111 00010000 00000000|
|11001000 00010111 00010111 11111111|
|11001000 00010111 00011000 00000000|
|11001000 00010111 00011000 11111111|
|11001000 00010111 00011001 00000000|
|11001000 00010111 00011111 11111111|
This table can be compressed to this:
|Prefix Match||Link Interface|
|11001000 00010111 00010||0|
|11001000 00010111 00011000||1|
|11001000 00010111 00011||2|
Dumb edge devices, smart core devices.
Smart edge devices. Pushing functionality to the edge increases innovation. Keep core devices simple.
Of course, we have only ``best effort'' service, due to this simplicity in the core.
bluebird:~/ * netstat -r Kernel IP routing table Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface 10.67.1.0 * 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 169.254.0.0 * 255.255.0.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 default 10.67.1.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0
Block diagram of a router:
A bit more detail on an input port:
High-end routers use CAMs.
Switching fabric architectures:
Some dedicated routers use this architecture.
Higher performance than memory-based. Not uncommon in mid-level (enterprise) dedicated routers.
More sophisticated configurations, such as omega networks, are coming into use.
Highest performance. Backbone routers would tend to use this architecture.
Output port details:
Switching fabric can dump packets into an output port more quickly than it can off-load them into the link, hence the need for queuing.
Switching fabric simultaneously forwarding three packets to the same output port:
Head-of-the-line (HOL) blocking:
Second packet in bottom input port blocked, even though its output port is available, because first packet is blocked.
HOL blocking can result in serious queueing problems.