Tom Kelliher, CS 319
Oct. 11, 2000
Joan Morrison observing Friday.
Read Chapter 28.
V & V.
Management activities, project planning, activity organization, project
Software has to be delivered:
Managers are responsible for ensuring this.
- on time.
- within budget.
- with acceptable performance.
- with sufficient reliability.
How does software management differ from other types of management?
- The product is intangible.
- There is no standard building process.
- Large projects are one-of-a-kind --- different from everything else.
The standard set:
- Proposal writing.
- Project costing.
- Project planning and scheduling.
- Project monitoring and reviews.
- Personnel selection and evaluation.
- Report writing and presentations.
- Informal vs. formal monitoring.
- Changes in organizational strategies during the course of a project.
- Staffing issues:
- Budget may not cover highly-paid staff.
- Sufficiently experienced staff may not be available anywhere.
- The organization may wish to develop the skills of inexperienced
Majority of manager's time devoted to project planning.
Must fit within the business plan.
- Quality plan: quality procedures and standards used.
- Validation plan: approach, resources, and schedule.
- Configuration management plan: procedures and structures.
- Maintenance plan: predict requirements, costs, and effort.
- Staff development plan: staff skills and experience growth.
Project planning process:
Establish project constraints
Make initial assessments of project parameters
define project milestones and deliverables
while project is not finished and not dead
draw up a schedule
initiate activities according to schedule
wait for a while
review project progress
revise estimates of project parameters
update the project schedule
re-negotiate project constraints and deliverables
if ( problems)
initiate technical review and possible revision
Review every 2--3 weeks.
- Introduction: objectives and constraints.
- Project organization: organization, people, and roles.
- Risk analysis: possible risks, likelihoods, reduction strategies.
- Hardware and software resource requirements: prices and delivery
- Work breakdown: activities, milestones, deliverables.
- Project schedule: dependencies, time, personnel resources.
- Monitoring and reporting mechanisms: how, when, and what of
- Milestone: end point of some process activity. Result in the
presentation of a formal progress report to management. Must be
measurable. (80% completion is not measurable).
To establish milestones: break process into activities. Associate outputs
Milestones should not be too frequent.
Waterfall model allows for straightforward definition of milestones.
- Deliverable: a project result delivered to the customer.
Deliverables are milestones; converse not true.
Rule of thumb: ``Estimate and double (anticipated problems). Then, double
that (unanticipated problems).''
Must estimate: time, resources, risks.
A schedule is a set of charts showing:
- Work breakdown.
- Activity dependencies.
- Personnel assignments.
Schedule slips outside the critical path need not be critical.
Types of charts/figures:
- Task duration and dependency chart.
- Activity network, showing milestones, activities, dependencies,
- Activity bar chart, showing start date, end date, slip times.
- Staff allocation vs. time chart.
3.7, 9, and 10.
Thomas P. Kelliher
Tue Oct 10 19:14:58 EDT 2000